From steering wheels and dashboards to air intakes, 3D printing technology has come into play for many Formula SAE teams looking to improve their race cars. In a new case study recently published by Carbon, we learn how student engineering organization Hornet Racing, affiliated with the Sacramento campus of California State University, worked with the company last year to leverage its 3D printing and end-to-end digital design capabilities to reinvent the intake manifold of its competitive race car and improve the performance of the engine.
The Hornet Racing team designs, builds, tests, and races a Formula-style car, with one seat and an open-wheel design, every year for the international Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) competition, which, in addition to the final race between university teams, challenges participants to come up with creative solutions to engineering and design problems.
The team’s car uses a 4-cylinder, Honda CBR600RR series engine, which has an individual throttle body for each cylinder. While this many bodies help to maximize engine performance, Formula SAE design challenge guidelines dictate that these must be replaced with a single throttle, complete with a diameter restrictor that limits the engine’s power outputs. While this may seem counterintuitive, the rule was made for a reason – to challenge the student teams to rethink the design and engineering of the engine.
The intake manifold is essential to a car’s performance, as it supplies a mixture of air and fuel to the cylinders. For the last several years, the Hornet Racing legacy engines had been giving teams issues with driving consistently and smoothly. When the throttle was pressed to the floor, poor airflow was causing nonlinear power delivery, which resulted in a delay. Most of its components were aluminum and had to be welded together, while carbon fiber molds were used to make the rest.
Conventional manufacturing offered several design limitations, such as engine performance issues like uneven air distribution, caused by slow design iterations and only being able to use basic part geometries. In addition, because there were many complicated steps and small components involved in putting together the legacy intake manifold, there was a lot of room for error. So the team decided to overhaul the component’s design for the 2017 race car and make it simpler.
Redesign goals included:
The Hornet Racing team members quickly realized that traditional manufacturing methods would be too expensive, and may not even be able to complete the improvements, so they instead used Carbon’s proprietary Digital Light Synthesis (DLS) technology and RPU 70 material to overcome the design challenges and complete its new intake manifold.
By taking advantage of DLS, and the complex geometries 3D printing technology is capable of achieving, the team was able to completely reimagine the intake manifold design into a durable component, ready to be placed into the engine and optimize their race car’s performance.
“Central to Hornet Racing's new design is a ‘bulb’ only 7 inches in length that replaced the two-foot long diffuser and the large plenum (over a half-gallon in volume),” Carbon explained. “Inspired by supersonic jet engine shock cones, which regulate air intake based on shape, the team combined the functionalities of the diffuser and plenum by designing a spike-like flow split within the bulb structure.”
This spike allows for the airflow to be optimized in a diffuser, which is just 30% of the length of a traditional one, allowing the team to get rid of the traditional plenum. Additionally, it has a dimpled pattern, similar to a golf ball, which sends the air right into the intake runners without a loss of velocity. The 3D printed intake manifold was manufactured rapidly, with no tooling costs or time con